Discussion on dotfile management, a meandering path to my current setup from dotgit to bombadil. EDIT: Superseded by my chezmoi configuration described here


No one gets very far working with stock one-size fits all tools in any discipline but it is especially true of working with computers. The right set of dotfiles have been compared to priming spells for invocation later, and this is probably true. More than anything else, dotfiles offer familiarity where there is none, be it from cowsay or a fancy shell prompt 1.

1$ cowsay Welcome home $USER
2  ___________________________
3< Welcome home rohitgoswami >
4 ---------------------------
5        \   ^__^
6         \  (oo)\_______
7            (__)\       )\/\
8                ||----w |
9                ||     ||

Why Now?

Figure 1: Home is where the dotfiles are

Figure 1: Home is where the dotfiles are

Well more prosaically, I have recently had to partially retire my beloved ThinkPad X380 Yoga 2 for a new MacBook Pro 2019 (Intel) 3. This is the single largest test of my Dotfile management system, since I now have configurations which are no longer scoped to just a Linux distribution (e.g. ArchLinux and CentOS 6), but are fundamentally not interchangeable.

Complicating matters further, dotgit sunset the bash version I have grown to love in favor of a new python version (explained here). I also have to manage profiles on more HPC systems than before. The time seemed ripe for a re-haul.

I’ll try to justify the Figure 1 as I dissect and rebuild my Dotfiles as I switch from dotgit to bombadil.


What makes a good dotfile management system? Some things which are common to most/all good systems:

These are configurations which are scoped to either machines or operating systems; e.g. archlinux, colemak etc.
The concept of a profile is essentially a set of targets used together; e.g. mylaptop, hzhpc
Most management systems use symlinks to modularly swap configurations in and out; ln -sf ....
Commonly implemented (with varying levels of help) in the form of a gpg encrypted file/files

All of these features are exemplefied by the fantastic dotgit and no doubt its python iteration is just as brilliant. However, I am wary of using python for my dotfile management, since I tend to use transient virtualenvs a lot and detest having a system python for anything.

Over the years, I’ve come to also value:

Especially true of installation proceedures, I simply need to get started quickly too often
template expansion
A rare feature to need, but one I’ve been addicted to since lazybones, pandoc and even orgmode brought a million snippets

On a probably technically unrelated note, I have recently been splurging on the “modern” (prettier) rust versions of standard command line tools; so I normally have cargo everywhere.

Starting out with Bombadil

Since toml-bombadil is:

  • Written in Rust
    • installs with cargo as a single binary
  • Supports encryption
  • Supports profiles
  • Has template expansion

It was the obvious choice.

1# Get Cargo
2curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://sh.rustup.rs | sh
3source $HOME/.cargo/env
4# Get toml-bombadil
5cargo install toml-bombadil

For the rest of this post I’ll assume everyone is working with a set of dots like my own.

1# Get my set
2export mydots="$HOME/Git/Github/Dotfiles"
3mkdir -p $mydots
4git clone git@github.com/HaoZeke/Dotfiles $mydots
5cd $mydots
6git checkout bombadil
7bombadil install -c "$mydots/bombadil.toml"

Now we can start defining profiles in our toml file and link them.

1# Get colemak and mac profiles
2bombail link -p macos colemac

This isn’t really meant to be a tutorial about bombadil-toml, but it might include some pointers. The remainder of the post will focus on the layout and logic of my own usage.


Shells form the core of most computing environments, and typically we would like to have basic support for at least bash and one additional shell. The secondary shell (zsh for me) is the most preferred, but often might not be avaliable 4.

Current Logic

Since many shells are somewhat compatible with each other (especially within the POSIX family); my current setup looked a bit like:

1. ~/.shellrc # With standard agnostic commands

Which in turn loaded a bunch of conditionally symlinked files from profiles.

 1# Platform
 4if [ -f ~/.shellPlatform ]; then
 5      . ~/.shellPlatform
 8# Specifics
11if [ -f ~/.shellSpecifics ]; then
12      . ~/.shellSpecifics
15# Wayland
18if [ -f ~/.waylandEnv ]; then
19      . ~/.waylandEnv
22# XKB
25if [ -f ~/.xkbEnv ]; then
26      . ~/.xkbEnv
29# Nix
32if [ -f ~/.nixEnv ]; then
33      . ~/.nixEnv

Current Approach

The problem with the older approach is that it isn’t always clear where different divisions should be drawn and it isn’t really flexible enough to add things arbitrarily. Basically, here there were only a few entry points. A more rational method is to emulate the work of init.d 5 scripts; where a set of files in a directory are all loaded if they exist 6.

This allows the previous setup to be instead refactored into the following folder setup (under $HOME/.config/shellrc):

  • .login.d which has machine specific files
    • Spack and Lmod modulefiles on various HPC nodes
    • Also just things which normally run only once per login (like system diagnostics)
    • MacOS considers every terminal to be a login shell for some odd reason
  • .shell.d which contains POSIX compliant snippets
    • This is by far the longest section
  • .bash.d for snippets which need bashisms
    • Array operations
  • .zsh.d for snippets which are specific to zsh
    • Plugin management

This then flows very nicely into a smaller set of core rc files for scripts.

 1# .bashrc / .zshrc
 2## Bashism (only for .bashrc)
 3if [[ $- != *i* ]]; then
 4      # shell is non-interactive. Do nothing and return
 5      return
 7## Zshism (only for .zshrc)
 8if [[ -o interactive ]]; then
 9      # non-interactive, return
10      return
13export shellHome=$HOME/.config/shellrc
15# Load all files from the shell.d directory
16if [ -d $shellHome/shell.d ]; then
17      for file in $shellHome/shell.d/*.sh; do
18              source $file
19      done
22# Load all files from the bashrc.d directory
23if [ -d $shellHome/bash.d ]; then
24      for file in $shellHome/bash.d/*.bash; do
25              source $file
26      done

Similarly, we can define our zshrc. For profiles (.zlogin and .bash_profile), we source the rc files along with the login.d scripts.


This method isn’t really very exciting at the offset. Each target has a series of scripts which are loaded in order.

 1tree .
 3├── bash
 4│   └── bashrc
 5├── posix
 6│   ├── 00_warnings.sh
 7│   ├── 01_alias_def.sh
 8│   ├── 02_func_def.sh
 9│   ├── 03_exports.sh
10│   ├── 04_sources.sh
11│   ├── 05_paths.sh
12│   └── 06_prog_conf.sh
13├── tmux
14└── zsh
164 directories, 8 files

This is correspondingly linked via the following snippet in bombadil.toml.

 1# Shells #
 3posix_warn = { source = "common/shell/posix/00_warnings.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/00_warnings.sh" }
 4posix_alias = { source = "common/shell/posix/01_alias_def.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/01_alias_def.sh" }
 5posix_func = { source = "common/shell/posix/02_func_def.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/02_func_def.sh" }
 6posix_exports = { source = "common/shell/posix/03_exports.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/03_exports.sh" }
 7posix_sources = { source = "common/shell/posix/04_sources.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/04_sources.sh" }
 8posix_paths = { source = "common/shell/posix/05_paths.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/05_paths.sh" }
 9posix_prog_conf = { source = "common/shell/posix/06_prog_conf.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/06_prog_conf.sh" }
10# Bash
11bashrc =  { source = "common/shell/bash/bashrc", target = ".bashrc" }

The same concept (folder structure) is used for specific machines as well (e.g. archlinux).

2archlinux_warn = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_00_warnings.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_00_warnings.sh" }
3archlinux_alias = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_01_alias_def.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_01_alias_def.sh" }
4archlinux_func = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_02_func_def.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_02_func_def.sh" }
5archlinux_exports = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_03_exports.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_03_exports.sh" }
6archlinux_sources = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_04_sources.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_04_sources.sh" }
7archlinux_paths = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_05_paths.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_05_paths.sh" }
8archlinux_prog_conf = { source = "archlinux/shell/posix/07_06_prog_conf.sh", target = ".config/shellrc/shell.d/07_06_prog_conf.sh" }

Note the way in which the files are saved to ensure the correct loading order. For zsh the list is a little different:

1zshrc = { source = "common/shell/zshrc.zsh", target = ".zshrc" }
2zshenv = { source = "common/shell/zsh/zshenv.zsh", target = ".zshenv" }
3zsh_keys = { source = "common/shell/zsh/01_keys.zsh", target = ".config/shellrc/zsh.d/01_keys.zsh" }
4zsh_func = { source = "common/shell/zsh/02_func_def.zsh", target = ".config/shellrc/zsh.d/02_func_def.zsh" }
5zsh_plugins = { source = "common/shell/zsh/03_plugins.zsh", target = ".config/shellrc/zsh.d/03_plugins.zsh" }
6zsh_sources = { source = "common/shell/zsh/04_sources.zsh", target = ".config/shellrc/zsh.d/04_sources.zsh" }
7zsh_theme = { source = "common/shell/zsh/04a_theme.zsh", target = ".config/shellrc/zsh.d/04a_theme.zsh" }

Text Editors

A long time ago I switched from VIM and Sublime to Emacs. I still retain in my dotfiles enough syntactical sugar and targets to make vim and Sublime easier to use; mostly using vim-plug. Emacs has a rather complicated set of configurations which are independently managed via doom-emacs and have their own self documenting site.


Though the shell.d setup is still overly verbose and not as flexible as I had initially hoped, this is still a few steps ahead of my previous setup. No part of this focused on the configurations themselves (more interesting examples, of switching to Colemak are here) Will be fleshing this out more with auxilliary posts on my configuration (browsers, etc.) and its management perhaps.

  1. bash defaults are particularly egregious ↩︎

  2. Water damage means I can’t type on it anymore, works as a great tablet now ↩︎

  3. A gift, and therefore cherished inspite of the vagrancies of Apple clang ↩︎

  4. Even more true if one wants something elvish (details here) or other shells ↩︎

  5. Perhaps better known in the context of udev.d startup scripts ↩︎

  6. A little bit of googling around showed that chris or chr4 had worked the idea trough to its logical conclusion before, so I essentially adapted it ↩︎